iva&ana vaata-

Richard AxelLinda Buck

saUMGanao maoM Cupo rhsya AaOr naaobaola purskar
Da gau$ dyaala p`dIp 

jara saaoicae – AaMK¸ kana¸ jaIBa¸ naak¸ %vacaa jaOsaI &anaoind`yaaoM ko ibanaa hma iktnao inassahaya hao sakto hMO. [na sabaka saMbaMQa hmaaro snaayautM~ sao hO tqaa yao saBaI hmaaro ilae p`kRit p`d<a bahumaUlya vardana hOM. [sa CaoTo sao AalaoK maoM [na saBaI pr ek saaqa cacaa- kr panaa tao saMBava nahIM hO prMtu Aaja Ga`aNa–Sai@t Aqaa-t\ saMUGanao kI xamata sao saMbaiQat rhsyaaoM pr cacaa- krnao ka Avasar AvaSya hO. jaI haM¸ AaOr yah Avasar idyaa hO dao AmaoirkI vaO&ainakaoM¸ ircaD- e@saola tqaa ilaMDa ba^k nao. Ga`aNa–Sai@t ko rhsyaaoM pr sao pda- ]zanao kI idSaa maoM mah%vapUNa- AnausaMQaana ko ilae [sa vaYa- ka ifija,yaaolaa^jaI ka naaobaola purskar [na daonaaoM kao saMyau@t $p sao p`dana ikyaa gayaa hO.

Ga`aNa saMbaMQaI saMvaodnaa sao jauD,I snaayau kaoiSakaeM mauK–gauha ko kzaor talaU ko }pr Avaisqat naaisaka p`kaoYz maoMM 'myauksa maoMba`ona' ko ivaiSaYTta p`aPt ihssao maoM pa[- jaatI hOM. hma manauYyaaoM kI Ga``aNa xamata kafI saIimat haotI hO AaOr [saI ko Anau$p [sa ivaiSaYTta–p`aPt maoMba`ona ka xao~fla BaI kafI kma ³lagaBaga 5 vaga- saoM•maI•´ haota hO. vahIM pr ]cca str tk ivakisat Ga`aNaSai@t vaalao ku<aaoM jaOsao jaanavaraoM maoM [saka xao~fla k[- gaunaa AiQak haota hO. ivaiSaYTta p`aPt myauksa maoMba`na ko [sa ihssao maoM isqat 'sapaoiT-Mga' kaoiSakaeM lagaatar myauksa ka Eaava krtI rhtI hOM jaao [sa xaoo~ kI [pIqaIilayama ko baahrI sath kao gaIlaa rKta hO. [na sapaoiT-Mga kaoiSakaAaoM ko baIca lagaBaga 100 sao 200 laaK Ga`aNaga`ahI snaayau kaoiSakaeM ibaKrI pD,I haotI hOM. [na snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM sao k[- CaoTo–CaoTo laoikna maaoTo 'DoMD/a[T\sa' inaklato hOM ijanako isaro qaaoD,o caaOD,o haoto hOM. [na caaOD,o isaraoM sao baarIk 'saIilayaa' inaklatI hOM jaao myauksa maoMba`ona kI sath pr p`xaoipt rhtI hOM. [sa xao~ kI p`%yaok snaayau kaoiSaka sao [saI p`kar kI lagaBaga 10 sao 20 saIilayaa inaklatI hOM. [na snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM ko 'e@saa^na' naaisaka p`kaoYz maoM isqat 'eqamvaaeD baaona' ko 'iËbaIfa^ma PlaoT' kao Baod kr 'Aa^lafO@TrI balbsa' maoM p`vaoSa krto hOM. yahaM yao e@saa^nsa yahaM ivaSaoYa p`kar ko imaT/la kaoiSakaAaoM ko DoMD/a[T\sa sao jauD, kr jaiTla glaaomao$lasa isanaOPsa ka inamaa-Na krto hOM. AaOsatna 26¸000 Ga`aNa saMbaMQaI snaayau kaoiSakaeM p`%yaok glaaomao$lasa sao [saI p`kar jauD,tI hOM. vaastva maoM yao Aa^lafO@TrI balbja, maistYk ko ilaMibak Baaga ko ivastar hI hOM. [na Aa^lafO@TrI balbsa ka sabaMQa Aa^lafO@TrI TO/@T Wara maistYk ko Aa^lafO@TrI ka^To-@sa ko ivaiBanna ihssaaoM sao haota hO.

naaisaka p`kaoYz ko myauksa maoMba`ona ko ivaiSaYT ihssao maoM Avaisqat yao Ga`aNaga`ahI kaoiSakaeM gaMQa ]%pnna krnao vaalao rsaayanaaoM ko ANauAaoM ko p`it saMvaodnaSaIla haotI hOM. yah saMvaodnaSaIlata Alaga–Alaga p`kar ko rsaayanaaoM ko ANauAaoM kI saaMd`ta ko p`it Alaga–Alaga haotI hO. ]dahrNa ko ilae lahsauna kao ivaiSaYT gaMQa p`dana krnao vaalao rsaayana 'imaqaa[la mako-PTona' kI nyaUnatma saaMd`ta hvaa maoM yaid p`it laITr 0 ,00000004 ima•ga`a• BaI hao tao yah lahsauna kI gaMQa ka Baana kranao ko ilae pyaa-Pt hO. vahIM pr @laaoraofa^ma- yaa eiqala [-qar kI gaMQa ka AaBaasa kranao ko ilae p`it laITr hvaa maoM [nakI nyaUnatma saaMd`ta k`maSa: 3•30 tqaa 5•83 ima•ga`a• haonaI caaihe. saaqa hI ek hI p`kar ko gaMQa kI tIva`ta maoM AMtr ka AnauBava krnao ko ilae p`it laITr hvaa maoM ]sa gaMQa ko ANauAaoM kI saaMd`ta maoM kma sao kma 30 p`itSat kI vaRiw haonaI caaihe.

hvaa ko saaqa gaMQa ]%paidt krnao vaalao rsaayanaaoM ko ANau naaisaka iCd`aoMM sao haoto hue naaisaka p`kaoYz maoM phMuca kr 'Ga`aNaga`ahI [pIqaIilayama' ko saMpk- maoM Aato hO tqaa vahaM ]pisqat myauksa maoM Gaula jaato hOM. [sa GaulaI Avasqaa maoM hI yao ANau Ga`aNaga`ahI snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM kao ]_IPt kr ]nako ivaVut ivaBava (elctrical potantial) maoM pirvat-na kr sakto hOM. [na gaMQa–]%padk rsaayanaaoM ko ANauAaoM kI saMrcanaa maoM 3–4 sao laokr 18–20 kaba-na ko prmaaNauAaoM ka haqa haota hO. [sako Aitir@t hmaoM yah BaI &at hO ik samaana kaba-na ko prmaaNauAaoM kI saM#yaa prMtu iBanna AaNaivak saMrcanaa vaalao rsaayanaaooM kI gaMQa Alaga–Alaga haotI hO. Anya pdaqaao-M kI tulanaa maoM tIva` gaMQa vaalao rsaayanaaoM kI panaI tqaa vasaa maoM GaulanaSaIlata ApoxaakRt AiQak haotI hO.

lagaBaga 10000 sao BaI AiQak p`kar ko gaMQa–]%padk rsaayanaaoMM maoM AMtr krnao tqaa ]nhoM phcaananao kI xamata ka ifija,yaaolaa^ijakla AaQaar @yaa hO – ABaI tk hmaoM [saka saTIk &ana nahIM qaa. prMtu hmaoM yah &ana AvaSya hao gayaa qaa ik ivaiBanna p`kar ko gaMQa hmaaro 'Aa^lafO@TrI balbja,' maoM Alaga–Alaga p`kar ko 'ivaiSaYT maoTabaailak gaitivaiQayaaoM' kI dr maoM vaRiw dSaa-to hOM. [sako Aitir@t¸ iksaI gaMQa–ivaSaoYa ka p`Baava maistYk ko Aa^lafO@TrI ka^To-@sa ko ivaiSaYT xao~ maoM hI maoTabaa^ilak gaitivaiQayaaoM kI vaRiw ko $p maoM doKa jaata hO.

[sa tM~ sao jauD,I gaui%qayaaoM tqaa rhsyaaoM kao saulaJaanao kI idSaa maoM ike gae AnausaMQaanaaoM evaM satt p`yaasaaoM kao maana donao ko ilae hI ircaD- e@saola tqaa ilaMDa ba^k kao [sa vaYa- ko naabaola purskar sao sammaainat ikyaa gayaa hO. ircaD- e@saola saMp`it ha^vaD- *yaujaoja, maoiDkla [MsTIT\yaUT¸ kaolaMibayaa yauinavaisa-TI¸ nyauyaa^k- tqaa ilaMDa bak baoisak saa[Msa iDvaIja,na¸ ÍoD hicaMsana kOMsar irsaca- saoMTr¸ saITla sao saMbaw hOM. [na laaogaaoM nao Ga`aNa xamata saMbaMQaI kaya- kI kao jaonaoiTk evaM AaiNvak str pr samaJanao ka p`yaasa ikyaa hO. 1991 maoM saMyau@t $p sao p`kaiSat AalaoK maoM [nhaoMnao batayaa ik hmaaro 3 p`itSat jaInsa ³lagaBaga 1000 jaInsa´ Ga`aNa saMga`ahk snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM ko iËyaa–klaapaoM sao saMbaMiQat haoto hOM. t%pScaat\ svatM~ $p sao kaya- krto hue ivaiBanna p`yaaogaaoM Wara yah dSaa-yaa ik Ga`aNa–tM~ iksa p`kar kaya- krta hO. ircaD- e@saola ka kaya- stnaQaairyaaoM tqaa kIT–ptMgaaoM pr AaQaairt qaa tao ilaMDa bak ka kaya- mau#ya $p sao stnaQaairyaaoM pr AaQaairt qaa.

jaInaaoma ka Baaga haonao ko karNa Anya jaInsa ko saaqa Ga`aNa saMbaMQaI saBaI jaInsa BaI hmaarI saBaI kaoiSakaAaoM maoM pae jaato hOM prMtu naaisaka p`kaoYz ko myauksa maoMba`ona ko ivaiSaYT ihssao maoM Avaisqat 'Ga`aNaga`ahI snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM' ko Aitir@t yao khIM BaI saiËya nahIM haoto – vah BaI ek snaayau kaoiSaka maoM [na hjaar jaInsa maoM sao kovala ek hI jaIna saiËya rhta hO. yao jaInsa Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTInsa ko saMSlaoYaNa ilae ]<ardayaI haoto hOM. Aba caUMik ek Ga`aNaga`ahI snaayau kaoiSaka maoM ek hI jaIna saiËya haota hO¸ tao jaaihr hO [sa kaoiSaka–ivaSaoYa maoM ek hI p`kar ko 'Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTIna' ko ANauAaoM ka saMSlaoYaNa haogaa. yao saMSlaoiYat ANau [sa kaoiSaka ko maoMba`ona maoM Avaisqat rhto hOM tqaa kovala ek hI p`kar ko gaMQa–]%padk rasaayainak ANauAaoM ko p`it hI nahIM Aiptu [sasao imalato–jaulato [saI samaUh ko Anya gaMQa–]%padk rasaayainak ANauAaoM ko p`it BaI saMvaodnaSaIla haoto hOM. yah Alaga baat hO ik saMvaodnaSaIlata ka str Alaga–Alaga rsaayanaaoM ko p`it Alaga–Alaga haogaa. Aqaa-t\ yah kaoiSaka–ivaSaoYa kovala ek ivaSaoYa gaMQa–]%padk rsaayanaaoM ko samaUh ko p`it hI saMvaodnaSaIla haotI hO¸ Anya ko p`it nahIM. dUsaro SabdaoM maoM khoM tao hma ijatnao p`kar ko gaMQa–]%padk ANauAaoM ko samaUh ko p`it saMvaodnaSaIla haoto hOM¸ hmaarI naaisaka p`kaoYz maoM ]tnao hI p`kar ko 'Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTIna' sao yau@t 'Ga`aNaga`ahI snaayau kaoiSakaeM' BaI haonaI caaihe.

vaastva maoM saBaI p`kar ko Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTInsa rasaayainak dRiYTkaoNa sao lagaBaga imalato–jaulato haoto hOM¸ caaho ]naka sMaSlaoYaNa iksaI BaI jaIna Wara ikyaa gayaa hao. ]namaoM qaaoD,a–bahut hI AMtr haota hO¸ prMtu yah saUxma AMtr hI ]nako ek ivaSaoYa samaUh ko gaMQa–]%padk rsaayanaaoM ko p`it saMvaodnaSaIlata ko ilae pyaa-Pt haota hO. [nako rasaayainak dRiYTkaoNa sao imalato–jaulato haonao ko karNa saBaI p`kar ko Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTInsa kI kaya-—p`NaalaI lagaBaga ek jaOsaI hI haotI hO.

[na Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTInsa ka inamaa-Na k[- p`kar ko emaInaao eisaD\sa ko Aapsa maoM EaRMKlaabaw trIko sao jauD,nao ko karNa haota hO. saaqa hI yao Ga`aNaga`ahI kaoiSakaAaoM kI maoMba`ona kao saat baar Aar–par kr ]sasao gauqao rhto hOM. emaInaao eisaD\sa kI yao EaRMKlaabaw laiD,yaaM [na p`aoTInsa maoM eosao pa^koT\sa ka saRjana krtI hOM ijanamaoM gaMQa–ivaSaoYa ka ]%padna krnao vaalao rsaayana ko ANau saTIk $p sao baOz sakto hOM. iksaI ek yaa ]saI samaUh ko Anya gaMQa–]%padk rsaayana ko saMpk- maoM Aanao pr kovala ]saI rsaayana ko p`it saMvaodnaSaIla Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTIna sao yau@t Ga`aNaga`ahI kaoiSakaAaoM maoM hI Apoixat pirvat-na pirlaixat haoto hOM. sava- p`qama [na kaoiSakaAaoM maoM Avaisqat Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTInsa ko ANauAaoM ko pa^koT\sa maoM Ga`aNaga`ahI rsaayana ko ANau saTIk $p sao baOz kr [nakI saMrcanaa maoM pirvat-na kr [nhoM saiËya kr doto hOM. yao saiËya Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTInsa ko ANau t%pScaat\ svayaM saoo jauD,o ek Anya rsaayana 'jaI–p`aoTIna' kao saiËya kr doto hOM. yao saiËya jaI–p`aoTInsa¸ Ga`aNaga`ahI kaoiSakaAaoM maoM ]pisqat ek Anya saUcanaa saMp`oYak rsaayana 'saI–eemapI' ³saa[i@lak eiDnaaoisana maaonaao fa^sfoT´ ko ANauAaoM kao saiËya kr doto hOM jaao [na kaoiSakaAaoM ko maoMba`ona maoM ]pisqat 'Aa^yana caOnaolsa' kao saiËya kr ivaiBanna p`kar ko Aa^yansa ko maoMbao`na ko Aar–par ko Aavaagamana ka maaga- p`Sast kr doto hOM. pirNaama¸ [na kaoiSakaAaoM ko ivaVut–ivaBava maoM pirvat-na ko $p maoM pirlaixat haota hO.

yah pirvait-t ivaVut–ivaBava¸ [na kaoiSakaAaoM maoM ek inaiScat tIva`ta vaalao snaayau–Aavaoga ko ]%padna ka karNa banata hO. [na kaoiSakaAaoM ko e@saa^na Wara yah snaayau–Aavaoga ³nerve impulse´ AalafO@TrI balbja, ko glaaomao$lasa kao p`Baaivat krto hOM. yahaM Qyaana donao vaalaI baat yah hO ik ek hI p`kar ko Ga`aNaga`ahI p`aoTInsa sao yau@t snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM ko e@saa^nsa lagaBaga ek hI glaaomao$lasa pr samaaPt haoto hOM. AalafO@TrI balbja, maoM lagaBaga 2000 glaaomao$lasa haoto hOM Aqaa-t\ lagaBaga 1000 p`kar ko Ga`aNaga`ahI kaoiSakaAaoM kI tulanaa maoM dugaunao. [na glaaomao$lasa maoM na kovala snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM ko e@saansa ka AMt haota hO bailk [sa saUcanaa–saMp`oYaNa–EaRMKlaa kI AgalaI kD,I ‘imaT/la kaoiSakaAaoM’M ka saMpk-–saU~ BaI payaa jaata hO. ek imaT/la kaoiSaka ek hI glaaomao$lasa Wara saiËya haotI hO. [na imaT/la kaoiSakaAaoM ko laMbao e@saansa maistYk ko AalafO@TrI kaTo-@sa tqaa Anya BaagaaoM ko ivaiBanna ihssaaoM ko saMpk- maoM rhto hOM¸ jahaM [nako Wara saMp`oiYat saUcanaaAaoM kao vyaa#yaaiyat kr ilayaa jaata hO.

vaastva maoM kao[- BaI gaMQa kovala ek hI p`kar ko gaMQa–]%padk rasaayainak ANauAaoM ka pirNaama nahIM haotI¸ Aiptu naanaa p`kar ko gaMQa–]%padk rsaayanaaoM ko ANauAaoM sao imala kr banatI hO. jaba BaI iksaI gaMQa ivaSaoYa sao saMbaMiQat rsaayana hmaarI naaisaka maoM phuMcato hOM tao ApnaI–ApnaI rasaayainak saMrcanaa ko Anausaar ek saaqa ]tnao hI p`kar kI ivaSaoYa Ga`aNaga`ahI kaoiSakaAaoM ko saiËya kr doto hOM. [na saBaI p`kar kI snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM sao imalanao vaalaI saUcanaa ivaiBanna p`kar ko glaaomao$lasa tqaa imaT/la kaoiSakaAaoM sao gaujartI hu[- ek saaqa maistYk tk ko AalafO@TrI ka^To-@sa ko ivaiBanna ihssao phMucatI hO¸ jahaM ]nhoM ek saaqa vyaa#yaaiyat kr ]sao pUva- smarNa–Sai@t ko bala sahI $p maoM phcaana ilayaa jaata hO.

tao janaaba¸ yah rha gaMQa maoM Antr krnao tqaa ]nhoM satIk $p sao phcaananao kI p`iËyaa ka rhsyaaod\GaaTna. vaOsao tao [sa tM~ ka mah%va jaIvana ko hr xao~ maoM hO prMtu 'Baaojana ko caunaava' tqaa 'yaaOna iËyaaAaoM' sao [saka ivaSaoYa saMbaMQa hO. jaIBa pr Avaisqat svaad kilakaAaoM maoM pae jaanao vaalao svaad saMbaMQaI snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM tqaa Ga`aNa saMbaMQaI snaayau kaoiSakaAaoM sao jauD,o tM~ maoM saMrcanaa%mak AMtr ko baavajaU,d [nakI kaya- p`NaalaI lagaBaga ek jaOsaI hO. daonaaoM hI rsaayana saMga`ahk hOM. yahI nahIM¸ daonaaoM maoM GainaYT saMbaMQa BaI hOM. [na daonaaoM ko iËyaa–klaapaoM ka p`Baava pacana–tM~ kI p`iËyaayaaoM pr BaI pD,ta hO. Baaojana ka jaayaka [na daonaaoM tM~aoM ko imalao–jaulao iËyaa–klaapaoM ka pirNaama haota hO. jaukama kI isqait maoM Ga`aNa tM~ pr ivaSaoYa p`Baava tao pD,ta hI hO¸ saaqa hI Baaojana ko jaayako pr BaI ivaprIt p`Baava pD,ta hO. Baaojana ]tnaa sausvaadu nahIM lagata. AiQakaMSa duga-MQayau@t Baaojana ko pICo jaIvaaNauAaoM ka haqa haota hO jaao Baaojana kao saD,ato hOM. saD,a huAa Baaojana p`aya: ivaYaOlaa BaI hao jaata hO. duga-MQa ko karNa A@sar hma eosao Baaojana kao AsvaIkar kr doto hOM. ivaiBanna jaMtuAaoM sao laokr hma manauYyaaoM tk maoM ivaprIt sao@sa ko SarIr sao inaklanao vaalaI gaMQa yaaOna–AakYa-Na tqaa yaaOna–]%tojak ka kaya- krtI hO.

AaSaa hO¸ BaivaYya maoM jaba BaI Aap iksaI saugaMQa ka AanaMd laMogao tao ircaD- e@saola tqaa ilaMDa ba^k kao BaI ek baar AvaSya yaad kroMgao. ek AaOr maja,odar baat – yaid Aap laMbao samaya tk ek hI gaMQa ko saMpk- maoM rhoM tao QaIro–QaIro Aap kao ]sakI tIva`ta maoM kmaI mahsaUsa haonao lagaogaI AaOr kao[- AaScaya- nahIM yaid Aap ]sa gaMQa kao ibalkula hI mahsaUsa na kr paeM. qaaoD,I dor ]sasao Alaga rhnao ko baad yaid Aap puna: ]saI gaMQa ko saMpk- maoM AaeM tao ]sao lagaBaga ]saI tIva`ta ko saaqa mahsaUsa kr sakto hOM.

24 navaMbar 2004