iva&ana vaata-

Aap ka saUrja–Aap kI maoja pr
DoskTa^p nyaui@layar FyaUja,na saMyaM~³2´

Da gau$ dyaala p`dIp 

tlayaarKana nyaUi@layar FyaUja,na saMyaM~ pr
Apnao sahyaaogaI ko saaqa p`yaaoga krto hue

naaiBakIya saMlayana ka ek AaOr trIka hO–‘jaD,%va pirsaImana’ (inertial confinement). 1974 sao kama m,aoM laa[- jaa rhI [sa ivaQaa maoM iDyauToiryama–T/a[iTyama sao banao kuC imalaI maITr vyaasa vaalao bafI-lao¸ zaosa gaaolao pr caaraoM trf sao laoja,r yaa Aa^yana puMja kI baaOCar kr¸ ] sakI baahrI sath kao vaaiYpt ikyaa jaata hO. yah vaaYp  gaaolao ko caraoMM trf Plaaja,maa ikrIT ka inamaa-Na krtI hO. caaraoM trf sao pD, rho dbaava ko karNa ivastairt haonao vaalao Plaaj,maa ka saMvaoga gaaolao ko bacao hue Baaga ko naaiBa kI Aaor inaid-YT haonao lagata hO. [sako pirNaama sva$p naaiBa maoM naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iËyaa hotu AavaSyak }Ymaa kI vyavasqaa hao jaatI hO.

naaiBakIya saMlayana–p`iËyaa Wara samauicat maa~a maoM }jaa- ko daohna kI isqait 1983 maoM ‘ha[D/aojana Plaaj,maa’ maoM phlaI baar Aija-t kI ga[-. prMtu vyaavahairk $p sao }jaa- ]%padna ko ilae [sa p`iËyaa sao [sasao jauD,o saMyaM~aoM ko inaomaa-Na tqaa ]nako rK–rKava kI laagat AklpnaIya hO. saaqa hI [sasao jauD,I  bahutorI samasyaaAaoM sao inapTnaa BaI Aasaana nahIM hO. [saka AMdajaa [sa baat sao lagaayaa jaa sakta hO ik AMtra-YT/Iya prmaaNau }jaa- AiBakrNa ko t%vaaQaana maoM p`staivat [MTrnaoSanala qamaao-nyaui@layar e@sap-irmaMTla ire@Tr ko inamaaNa- kI laagat lagaBaga pa^ca Arba Da^lar AaMkI ga[- hO¸jaao Abasao kma sao k,ma dsa vaYa- baad tOyaar hao paegaa¸ vah BaI tba¸ jaba [sa piryaaojanaa pr saucaa$ ZMga sao kaya- calao. 

tulanaa%mak dRiYT sao kma tap pr ]prao> ZMga sao haonao vaalao ‘iD\yauToiryama–T/a[iTyama’ ko naaiBakaoM ko saMlayana sao ]%paidt }jaa- ko daohna pr hI vaO&ainakaoM ka Qyaana koMid`t hO. halaaÐik [sa p`iËyaa sao p``aPt }jaa- kI maa~a kma hO¸ ifr BaI [sasao hjaaraoM saala ka kama tao calaayaa hI jaa sakta hO. dUsarI Aaor¸ iD\yauToiryama–iD\yauToiryama ko naaiBakaoM ko saMlayana sao [tnaI p`caur maa~a maoM }jaa- ka ]%padna saMBava hO ik vat-maana samaya sao lao kr saUya- ko inaiYËya haonao ko pScaat\ BaI pUrI duinayaa kI }jaa-–Kpt kao AasaanaI sao pUra ikyaa jaa sakta hO¸ prMtu [nako saMlayana ko ilae A%yaiQak tap kI AavaSyakta haotI hO.

tlayaarKana nao sMaBavatÁ phlaI baar iDyauToiryama–iDyauToiryama ko baIca naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iËyaa kao Qvaina–trMgaaoM ko ]pyaaoga sao kranao maoM saflata p`aPt kI hO¸ vah BaI ek sasto tqaa CaoTo sao ]pkrNa maoM. [sako Aitir> Plaaj,maa pirsaImana tqaa naaiBakIya saMlayana ko ilae Apoixat }Ymaa ka str [sa ivaQaa maoM  ‘cauMbakIya Aqavaa jaD,%va pirsaImana ivaQaa’ kI tulanaa maoM baD,I AasaanaI sao p`aPt ikyaa jaa sakta hO. [sako pUva- 1989 maoM Amaoirka tqaa [MgalaOMD ko dao vaO&ainakaoM nao BaI maoja pr rKo jaa saknao vaalao ek Anya saMyaM~ maoM ‘SaIt saMlayana’ kI ivaQaa Wara saamanya tap pr naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iËyaa kranao ka davaa ikyaa qaa. laoikna Anya AnausaMQaanak<aa- [sao duhranao maoM Asamaqa- rho¸ AtÁ AiQakaMSa vaO&ainak iflahala [sasao sahmat nahIM hOM. tlayaarKana Wara ivakisat ‘saaonaoFyaUja,na’ kI na[- ivaQaa maoM GaiTt hao rhI naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iË`yaa ko saMdBa- maoM ivaSvasanaIya p`maaNa imala rho hOM.

halaaÐik ABaI [sa ivaQaa sao }jaa- daohna kI saMBaavanaa na ko barabar hO¸ laoikna tlayaarKana ko Anausaar BaivaYya maoM eosaI saMBaavanaa¸ kma sao kma saOwaaMitk $p sao AvaSya banatI hO. [sa tknaIik ka ]pyaaoga nyauT/a^na ivasaja-na ko AaQaar pr kaya- krnao vaalao naanaa p`kar ko CaoTo¸ saGana evaM sasto ]pkrNa ivakisat krnao maoM BaI ikyaa jaa sakta hO. saurxaa jaaÐca ko samaya iksaI saUTkosa ko AMdr iCpae gae saamaana ka pta lagaanao vaalao saMsaUcak yaM~ (detector)¸ iksaI pdaqa- kI AaNaivak saMrcanaa ka ivaSlaoYaNa krnao vaalao yaM~¸ isaMqaoiTk pdaqaao-M ko inamaa-Na maoM kama Aanao vaalao ]pkrNa¸ Aaid ko ivakasa sao lao kr laIiqayama  ³ijasaka ]pyaaoga icaik%saa ko xao~ maoM kama Aanao vaalao ‘[maoij,aMga’ tknaIik sao lao kr GaD,I ko Dayala banaanao maoM ikyaa jaata hO´ ko p`BaavaI ]%padna kI saMBaavanaa¸ kuC eosao hI ]dahrNa hOM. yahI nahIM¸ [sakI madd sao ‘nyauT/a^na taraoM’ tqaa ‘blaOk haola’ kI iËyaa–ivaiQa evaM eosao hI Anya ba`*maaMDIya iËyaa–kalaapaoM kao samaJanao maoM BaI AasaanaI hao saktI hO.

kma Kca- maoM bana saknao vaalaa tqaa ]pyaaoigata kI Apar saMBaavanaaAaoM sao jauD,a¸ tlayaarKana Wara ivakisat¸ yah ]pkrNa AaiKr hO @yaa ¸ kOsao kaya- krta hO evaM [samaoM haonao vaalaI naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iËyaaAaoM kI puiYT ko saMdBa- maoM @yaa–@yaa nae p`maaNa jauTae gae hOM–Aa[e¸ Aba hma [na saba baataoM pr cacaa- kroM.  

ek dUsaro ko }pr rKo dao ka^f,I maga kI }Ðcaa[- vaalao glaasa sao inaima-t tqaa ‘iDyauToiryaoToD eisaTaona’ jaOsao trla rsaayana sao Baro bat-na¸ tlayaarKana Wara ivakisat ]pkrNa ko mau#ya Baaga hOM. ‘iDyauToiryaoToD eisaTaona’ naamak rsaayana saamaanya ‘eisaTaona’ sao qaaoD,a Alaga haota hO. [sakI saMrcanaa maoM saamaanya ha[D/aojana ko sqaana pr iDyauToiryama ka ]pyaaoga haota hO. [sa ]pkrNa maoM naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iËyaa kI isqait ]%pnna kranao ko ilae glaasa ko [sa bat-na maoM rKo iDyaToiryaoToD eisaTaona pr p`it paÐca imalaI saokoMD( ek saokoMD ka hajaarvaaÐ ihssaa ) ko AMtrala pr Agalao paÐca imalaI saokoMD tk nyauT/a^nsa ko puMja kI lagaatar baaOCar kI ga[-. nyauT/a^nsa ko puMja kI baaOCar ko saaqa–saaqa¸ ]tnao hI samaya tk baIsa hjaar p`it saokoMD kI dr sao Aa^na–Aa^f haonao vaalao ‘AlT/asaa]nD’ ]%pnna krnao vaalao ]pkrNa kI sahayata sao¸ ivaiSaYT AavaRit vaalao AlT/asaa]nD trMgaaoM kI baOCar BaI kI ga[-.

[sa p`kar sao ike gae nyauT/a^nsa kI baaOCar nao trla iDyauToiryaoToD eisaTaona maoM Ait saUxma gauihkaAaoM (cavities) ka inamaa-Na kr idyaa. yao gauihkaeÐ AlT/asaa]nD kI baaOCar ko p`Baava sao lagaBaga 60 naOnaaomaITr ko vyaasa vaalao balabaulaaoM maoM pirvait-t hao ga[-M. QaIro–QaIro [naka Aakar baZ, kr ASaatIt 6000 ma[Ëa^na tk hao jaata hO. Aakar maoM lagaBaga ek laaK gaunaa tk baZ, cauko [na baulabaulaaoM kao naMgaI AaÐKaoM sao BaI doKa jaa sakta hO. [sa Aakar tk phuÐca kr kuC hI naOnaao saokoMD ko AMdr yao baulabaulao Ait ivaSaala Sai> ko saaqa saMkuicat haoto hOM evaM Apnao pUva- Aakar maoM vaapsa Aa jaato hOM. lagaBaga ek laaK gaunaa CaoTo Aakar maoM saMkuicat haonao kI p`iËyaa maoM [tnaI Bayaanak  }Ymaa tqaa dbaava ka  ]%padna haota hO ijasakI tulanaa saUya- tqaa taraoM ko naaiBa maoM ]%pnna haonao vaalao tap evaM dbaava sao ikyaa jaa sakta hO. baulabalaaoM ko Aakar maoM haonao vaalaa yah AsaaQaarNa pirvat-na hI [sa p`iËyaa ko daOrana }Ymaa ]%padna ko ilae ]<ardayaI hO.

AnausaMQaanak<aa-AaoM ko Anausaar baulabaulaaoM ko saMkucana kI [sa p`iËyaa ko daOrana [naka AaMtirk tap lagaBaga ek kraoD, iDga`I saoilsayasa tqaa dbaava pRqvaI ko saamanya vaayaumaMDlaIya dbaava kI tulanaa maoM lagaBaga ek Arba gaunaa tk baZ, jaata hO. [tnaI AiQak }Ymaa tqaa dbaava kI ]%pi,<a ko baad BaI yah ]pkrNa pUrI trh saurixat rhta hO¸ @yaaoM ik [sa p`kar ko tap evaM dbaava kI isqait saMkuicat hao rho baulabaulaaoM maoM hI pirsaIimat rhtI hO. [sa p`iËyaa maoM p`kaSa kI  xaiNak camak BaI idKa[- dotI hO. saamaanya ‘saaonaao lyauimainasaoMsa’ kI tulanaa maoM baulabaulaaoM  ko saMkucana ko ilae lagaBaga dsa Krba AiQak ]jaa- ]plabQa haotI hO.

[sa Ait ]cca tap evaM dbaava kI Avasqaa maoM iDyauToiryaoToD eisaTaona maoM isqat iDyauToiryama ko prmaaNau ]saI p`kar saMlayailat haonao lagato hOM¸ ijasa p`kar saUya- tqaa taraoM maoM ha[D/aojana ko prmaaNauAaoM ka saMlayana haota hO. [sa p`iËyaa sao }jaa- tqaa nyauT/a^na ko inassarNa ko saaqa–saaqa gaamaa ikrNaaoM ka ivaikrNa evaM T/a[iTyama jaOsao roiDyaao–QamaI- pdaqa- ka ]%padna BaI haota hO.  AitsaMvaodnaSaIla ]pkrNaaoM tqaa ivaSaoYa&aoM kI sahayata sao saonaaoFyaUja,na kI [sa p`iËyaa sao jauD,o [sa pUro p`yaaoga ko daOrana haonao vaalao ]prao> saBaI pirvat-naaoM sao saMbaMiQat AaMkD,aoM kao ek~ kr¸ ]naka ivaSlaoYaNa ikyaa gayaa.

roMsaolar pa^laIToi@nak ko nyaui@layar [MjaIinayairMga ko p`aofosar ra^ba-T blaa^k nao [na p`yaaogaaoM maoM inassaairt nyauT/a^nsa tqaa gaamaa ikrNaaoM kI saMsaUcanaa (detection) ko ilae AitsaMvaodnaSaIla evaM nae p`kar ko ]pkrNa tM~ ko ivakasa maoM sahayata dI. ivaiSaYT p`kar ko kMPyaUTr jainat ‘ha[D/aoDayanaimak Saa^k kaoD\sa’ kao ivakisat kr roMsaolar pa^laIToi@nak ko [MijanaIyairMga ko ek Anya p`aofosar laohI tqaa riSayana ekoDmaI Aa^f saa[Msa sao saMbaw p`aofosar inagmaaTuilana nao baulabaulaaoM ko inamaa-Na evaM saMkucana ko daOrana haonao vaalao pirvat-naaoM sao jauD,o AaMkDaoM ka saOwaMitk ivaSlaoYaNa ikyaa.

yao AaMkD,o tqaa ]naka ivaSlaoYaNa baulabaulaaoM maoM hao rho naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iËyaaAaoM kI puiYT krto hOM. baulabaulaaoM  ko saMkucana ko samaya p`kaSa kI xaiNak camak ko saaqa nyaUT^ana inassarNa kI dr lagaBaga dsa laaK nyauT/a^na p`it saokoMD tk phuÐca jaatI hO tqaa [sa samaya nyauT/a^na inassarNa sao ]%paidt }jaa- ka str lagaBaga 2 ,5 maogaaelao@T/ana vaaolT tk phuÐca jaata hO. }jaa- ka yah str iDyauToiryama–iDyauToiryama ko saMlayana ko ilae pyaa-Pt hO. T/a[iTyama –]%padna BaI yahaÐ hao rhI naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iËyaaAaoM  kI Aaor hI [Saara krto hOM¸ @yaaoM ik [saka ]%padna naaiBakIya p`itiËyaaAaoM Wara hI saMBava hO. saamaanya eisaTaona ko saaqa [na p`yaaogaaoM kao duhranao pr T/a[iTyama ka ]%padna nahIM haota hO. kovala iDyauToiryaoToD eisaTaona maoM hI haonao vaalaI yao p`iËyaaeÐ iDyauToiryama–iDyauToiryama saMlayana kI hI puiYT krtI hoM.

jaOsaa ik phlao BaI kha gayaa hO [na p`yaaogaaoM Wara yao vaO&ainak ABaI ]sa isqait tk nahIM phuÐca pae hOM¸ jahaÐ [sa p`iËyaa ko ilae Kca- kI ga[- }jaa- kI tulanaa maoM ]%paidt }jaa- ka str AiQak hao. [sa idSaa maoM ABaI bahutoro p`yaaogaaoM tqaa AnausaMQaana kI AavaSyakta hO. p`yaaogaaoM kI AgalaI EaRMKlaa maoM [na laaogaaoM ka ]_oSya saaonaaoFyauja,na ko ]pkrNaaoM kao ]sa str tk pirmaaija-t krnaa tqaa eosao p`yaaoga krnaa hO¸ jaao nyauT/a^na tqaa }jaa- ]%padna kI saMBaavanaa  ko vyaavahairk pxa kao saaQanao maoM sahayak hao. AaSaa hO¸ hmaaro vaO&ainak ek na ek idna &ana ko [sa str pr AvaSya phuÐcaoMgao tqaa }jaa-–]%padna tqaa nyauT/a^na inassarNa ko AaQaar pr kama krnao vaalao bahutoro eosao ]pkrNaaoM ka ivakasa saMBava hao sako gaa¸ jaao sasto evaM bahu]pyaaogaI haoMgao.

24 Ap`Ola 2004