iva&ana vaata-

Aap ka saUrja–Aap kI maoja pr
DoskTa^p nyaui@layar FyaUja,na saMyaM~

Da gau$ dyaala p`dIp 

$saI tlayaarKana Apnao saMyaM~ ko ivaYaya maoM batato hue

‘saUrja AaOr vah BaI hmaarI  maoja prŃ Ba[-¸ ‘ iva&anavaata- ’ jaOsao gaMBaIr stMBa maoM eosaI gaPpoM tao hma nahIM hI saunanaa caahoMgao.’ ivaWana pazk gaNa ka eosaa saaocanaa zIk hI hO. laoikna yah laoKk @yaa kro¸ jaba pD-\yaU yauinavaisa-TI ko nyaui@layar [MjaIinayairMga ko p`aof,osar $saI tlayaarKana AaOr ]nako sahyaaogaI saUrja tao nahI¸prMtu kuC–kuC saUrja jaOsaa hI ]pkrNa banaanao ko BagaIrqa p`yaasa maoM  lagao hue haoM AaOr vah BaI [tnaa CaoTa ijasao maoja pr rKa jaa sako.tao [samaoM nayaa @yaa hOĆ [sao [tnaa mah<va donao kI @yaa j,a$rt hOĆ Aaja–kla tao jamaanaa hI ‘imanaIecara[jao,Sana’ ka hO. kMPyaUTr¸ TIvaI¸ kOmara– saBaI kao CaoTa ikyaa jaa rha hO.

cailae¸ Aba maOM Aap kao Kula kr ivastar maoM bata hI dota hUĐ. tlayaarKana tqaa [nako sahyaaoigayaaoM Wara ivakisat saMyaM~ naaiBakIya }jaa- ko ]%padna tqaa ]pyaaoga sao saMbaMiQat hO. vaastva maoM [sako ivakasa tqaa [samaoM haonao naaiBakIya p`itiËyaaAaoM sao saMbaMiQat p`aqaimak AnausaMQaana kaya- ka naotR%va tlayaarKana nao ‘Aaok irja, naoSanala laObaaoroTrI’ ko PaUNa-kailak vaO&ainak ko pd pr kaya- krto hue hI ikyaa qaa. [sa saMbaMQa maoM [na laaogaaoM nao maaca- 2002 maoM hI ‘saa[Msa’ naamak jana-la maoM laoK p`kaiSat ikyaa qaa. prMtu naaiBakIya p`itiËyaaAaoM kI jaaĐca–prK krnao vaalao AcCo evaM saTIk ]pkrNaaoM ko ABaava maoM  yao  pyaa-Pt evaM ivaSvasanaIya p`maaNa donao maoM Asamaqa- rho. baad maoM pD\-yaU yauinavaisa-TI maMo kaya- krto hue tlayaarKana tqaa [nako sahyaaogaI ‘yaUesa iDfoMsa eDvaaMsD irsaca- p`aojao@T ejaoMsaI’ Wara imalao Anaudana ko bala pr AcCo evaM saTIk ]pkrNaaoM kI sahayata sao [sa baat ko pyaa-Pt evaM ivaSvasanaIya p`maaNaaoM kao jauTanao ka davaa kr rho hMO ik [nako Wara ivakisat saMyaM~ maoM ‘naaiBakIya saMlayana’ (nuclear fusion) kI p`i`Ëyaa hao rhI hO. 

‘saaonaaoFyaUja,na’ naamak [sa na[- ivaQaa maoM Qvaina trMgaaoM kao p`yau> kr naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`ikyaa p``arMBa kra saknao kI yah Kaoja¸ saMBavatÁ naaiBakIya BaaOitkI ko [ithasa maoM ek nayaa pD,ava hO. tlayaarKana ko Anausaar¸ ‘Saayad phlaI baar eosaa huAa hO ik saamaanya yaaMi~k }jaa- ka ]pyaaoga kr ek CaoTo evaM sasto sao ]pkrNa maoM saUrja evaM taraoM maoM }jaa- ]%pnna krnao vaalaI naaiBakIya p`itiËyaaAaoM kI nakla kra saknao mao saflata p`aPt hu[- hO’. [sa AaivaYkar ka ek AaOr mah%vapUNa- pxa yah BaI hO ik [sa p`iËyaa maoM p`yau> ]pkrNa ko inamaa-Na kI laagat¸ kraoD,aoM Da^lar kI laagat sao banaae jaanao vaalao prMpragat BaImakaya ‘nyaui@layar FyaUja,na  ire@Tsa- kI tulanaa maoM nagaNya hO.

[sa AaivaYkar tqaa [sasao jauD,I tmaama baataoM kao AcCI trh samaJanao ko ilae naaiBakIya }jaa- sao saMbaMiQat AaQaarBaUt tqyaaoM ka &ana¸ AavaSyak hO. iksaI BaI t%va ko prmaaNau ko koMd` maoM Avaisqat naaiBak (nucleus) ko inamaa-Na maoM Qanaa%mak kNaaoM ‘p`aoTa^nsa’ tqaa ]dasaIna kNaaoM ‘nyauT/a^nsa’ kI mau#ya BaUimaka haotI hO. [na kNaaoM kao ek saaqa jaaoD, kr ek saGana koMd`k ka $p donao maoM ek ivaSaoYa p`kar ko ‘naaiBakIya Sai>’ kI mau#ya BaUimaka haotI hO. yah Sai> gau$%vaakYa-Na tqaa ivaVut–cauMbakIya Sai> sao k[- gaunaa AiQak Sai>SaalaI haotI hO¸ saaqa hI iksaI naaiBak maoM [sakI maa~a vahaĐ Avaisqat kNaaoM kI vyasqaa–ivaSaoYa pr inaBa-r krtI hO. ivaSaoYa pirisqaityaaoM maoM haonao vaalaI naaiBakIya p`itiËyaaAaoM ko flasva$p klpnaatIt }jaa- ka ]%padna saMBava hO.

naaiBakIya p`itiËyaaAaoM sao ]%paidt }jaa- kI maa~a ko baaro maoM kuC Anaumaana¸ ek saamaanya rasaayainak p`itiËyaa ko daOrana ]%paidt }jaa- sao [sakI tulanaa kr lagaayaa jaa sakta hO. jaba ek ‘[lao@T/a^na’ iksaI ‘p`aoTa^na’ sao jauD, kr ha[D/aojana ko prmaaNau ka inamaa-Na krta hO tao maa~ 13 ,5 [lao@T/a^na vaaolT }jaa- ka ]%padna haota hO. vahIM pr yaUroinayama ko BaarI naaiBak ko maa~ dao BaagaaoM maoM ivaGaTna (nuclear fission) sao  p`it ivaGaTna 20 kraoD, [lao@T/a^na vaaolT yaa ifr [sako ivaprIt ‘p`aoTa^na’ tqaa ‘nyauT/a^na’ ko naaiBakIya saMlayana (nuclear fusion) kI p`iËyaa Wara iD\yauToiryama ko naaiBak ko inamaa-Na ko daOrana 22 kraoD, [lao@T/a^na vaaolT }jaa- ka ]%padna haota hO. daonaaMo hI p`kar kI naaiBakIya }jaa- ko rcanaa%mak tqaa ivanaaSakarI sadupyaaoga Aqavaa du$pyaaoga kI AsaIimat saMBaavanaaeM hOM.

naaiBakIya ivaGaTna sao p``aPt }jaa- ko du$pyaaoga ka iGanaaOnaa caohra hma iWtIya ivaSvayauw ko daOrana ihraoiSamaa tqaa naagaasaakI pr igarae gae dao prmaaNau bamaaoM ko $p maoM doK cauko hOM. ]sako sadupyaaoga ka ]dahrNa ivaVut }jaa- ko ]%padna maoM p`yau> ike jaa rho  saOkDa,oM ekD, maoM fOlao BaImakaya nyaui@layar ire@Tsa- ko $p maoM doKa jaa sakta hO.

naaiBakIya saMlayana sao p`aPt }jaa- ko sadupyaaoga ka sabasao sauMdr evaM p`akRitk namaUnaa hma saaOr }jaa- ko $p maoM doKto hOM. saUya- hI @yaaoM¸ tmaama taro naaiBakIya saMlayana kI ivaiBanna p`itiËyaaAaoM ko flasva$p hI }jaa- ka }%padna krto hOM. caUĐik prmaaNauAaoM ko naaiBakaoM pr  Qanaa%mak AavaoSa haota hO¸ AtÁ dao Qanaa%mak AavaoSayau> naaiBakao ko saMlayana ko ilae AavaSyak hO ik [nhoM p`yaa-Pt maa~a maoM gaitja }jaa- (kinetic energy) imalao¸ ijasako bala yao Apnao baIca p`yau> isqar–ivaVut $pI ApkYa-Na Sai> (electrostatic repulsion force) kao praijat kr sakoM.

[tnaI AiQak gaitja }jaa- p`dana krnao ko, dao trIko hOM. ek tao yah ik saMlaiyat haonao vaalao daonaaoM naaiBakaoM kI gaitja }jaa- ka str Ait ]cca tap kao p`yau> kr baZ,ayaa jaae. [sa p`iËyaa kao ‘tap–naaiBakIya saMlayana’ ( thermonuclear fusion) khto hOM AaOr yahI saaOr–}jaa- ka sa`aot hO. dUsara¸ iksaI %varNa ]%pnna krnao vaalao saMyaM~ (accelerating device)  kI sahayata sao iksaI ek naaiBak kao ]cca }jaa-—str tk %vairt (accelerate) kr idyaa jaae taik yah ApkYa-Na Sai> kao praijat kr dUsaro naaiBak sao saMlaiyat hao sako.

saUya- tqaa eosao hI Anya taraoM ka AiQakaMSa Baaga ha[D/aojana jaOsaI gaOsa sao banaa haota hO. saUya- kI baahrI prtaoM ka dbaava [sako naaiBa maoM isqat gaOsaaoM ko Gana%va kao panaI kI tulanaa maoM lagaBaga 100 gaunaa baZ,a dota hO¸ saaqa hI yahaĐ ka tapËma BaI lagaBaga DoZ, kraoD, iDga`I koilvana hao jaata hO. [tnao AiQak tap tqaa saGana Avasqaa maoM rhnao ko karNa ha[D/aojana ko ANau toja rFtaar sao ek dUsaro sao Tkra–Tkra kr svatÁ [lao@T/a^na tqaa p`aoTa^na maoM ivaGaiTt haoto rhto hMOO tqaa [saI Avasqaa łPlaaj,maa Avasqaa´ maoM hI banao rhto hOM. [sa Bayaanak tap pr  [na p`aoTa^nsa kao pyaa-Pt gaitja }jaa- svatÁ imalatI rhtI hO. [sa }jaa- koo karNa yao Apnao baIca kI ApkYa-Na Sai> kao praijat kr ek dUsaro sao saMlaiyat haoto rhto hOM¸ ijasako flasva$p hIilayama ko naaiBak łdao p`aoTa^na¸ dao nyauT/a^na´ ka inamaa-Na haota rhta hO. [sa p`ikyaa maoM p`caur maa~a maoM }jaa- BaI ]%pnna haotI hO. saUya- kI AsaaQarNa gau$%vaakYa-Na Sai@t [na p`iËyaaAaoM ko iËyaanvana maoM sahayak haotI hO.

pRqvaI kI vat-maana pirisqaityaaoM maoM eosaI p`itiËyaaAaoM kIo Sau$Aat krnaa tqaa [nakI inarMtrta kao banaae rKnao ko saaqa–saaqa [nhoM inayaMi~t kr¸ ]%paidt }jaa- ka samauicat ]pyaaoga kr panaa baD,a mauiSkla tqaa KcaI-laa kama hO. [sako ilae ek mah<vapUNa- AavaSyakta hO¸ naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iËyaa maoM p`yau> haonao vaalao [-MQana łha[D/aojana ko ivaiBanna Aa[saoTaoPsa´ ka pyaa-Pt maa~a maoM ]plabQa haonaa. Aaja tk kI ivakisat tknaa^laa^jaI ko ilae savaao-icat [-MMQana iD\yauToiryama tqaa T/a[iTyama hOM. iD\yaToiryama samaud` ko panaI maoM p`akRitk $p sao pyaa-Pt maa~a łlagaBaga 30 ga`ama p`it GanamaITr´ maoM ]plabQa hO. T/a[iTyama¸jaao ek roiDyaaoei@Tva pdaqa- łhaf laa[f Ta[ma 12 vaY-a´ hO¸ AasaanaI sao ]plabQa nahIM hO. prMtu [saka ]%padna prMpragat ifSana nyaui@layar ire@Tr maoM ikyaa jaa sakta hO yaa ifr FyaUja,na nyaUi@layar ire@Tr maoM laIiqayama Wara [saka ]%padna saMBava hO AaOr laIiqayama kI pyaa-Pt maa~a pRqvaI pr maaOja,Ud hO¸ ijasao AasaanaI sao p`aPt ikyaa jaa sakta hO.

halaaĐik ‘AavaoiSat kiNaka %varNa ]%padk saMyaM~’ (charged particle accelerator device) Wara iD\yauToiryama ko naaiBak kao AasaanaI sao [sa saImaa tk gait dI jaa saktI hO ik yah }jaa- ko ]sa str pr phuĐca jaaya¸ jahaĐ yah ApkYa-Na Sai> kao praijat krto hue T/a[iTyama sao Tkra kr naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`itiËyaa kao janma do sako. laoikna [sa tknaIik maoM }jaa-–]%padna ko bajaaya }jaa-—Kpt khIM jyaada hO¸ @yaaoMik ]cca }jaa- yau> iDyauToiryama ko AiQakaMSa naaiBak vahaĐ ]pisqat [lao@T/a^nsa tqaa naaiBakaoM sao baar–baar Tkra kr ibanaa naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`iËyaa kao janma ide hI ApnaI }jaa- Kao baOzto hOM. 

naaiBakIya saMlayana sao samauicat maa~a maoM }jaa- ]%padna hotu dUsarI ivaQaa hO– tapnaaiBakIya saMlayana ( Thermonuclear Fusion )¸ jahaĐ saUya- AaOr taraoM maoM haonao vaalaI naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`itiËyaaAaoM kI nakla ka p`yaasa ikyaa jaata hO. ha[D/aojana bama maoM prmaaNau bama sao p`aPt }jaa- kI madd sao iDyauToiryama evaM T/a[iTyama kao tapnaaiBakIya saMlayana hotu AavaSyak }jaa- p`dana kI jaatI hO. [sa Ait ]cca tap pr [na daonaaoM ko saMlayana sao hIilayama ko ek naaiBak tqaa ek Ait }jaa-yau> nyauT/a^na ka janma haota hO. yah nyauT/a^na Aagao kI saMlayana p`itiËyaaAaoM ko haonao maoM sahayak haota hO,¸ prMtu [sa p`kar ]%paidt }jaa- AinayaMi~t haotI hO.

[saI p`iËyaa  kao inayaMi~t ZMga sao kranao tqaa [sasao ]%paidt }jaa- ko p`BaavaI daohna ko ilae nyui@layar FyaUja,na ire@Tr maoM naaiBakIya [-MQana kao ‘naaiBakIya tap–saMlayana saImaa’ tk garma ikyaa jaanaa caaihe¸ ijasasao vao Plaaj,maa Avasqaa maoM Aa jaaeĐ. jaaihr hO¸ BaImakaya Aakar ko baavaja,Ud BaI eosao ire@Tsa- saUya- yaa taraoM kI tulanaa maoM hjaaraoM–laaKaoM gaunaa CaoTo hI haoMgao. caUĐik [namaoM naaiBakIya p`itiËyaaeĐ ek Ait saIimat samaya maoM haonaI caaihe¸ flatÁ [naka tap saUya- ko naaiBa kI tulanaa maoM k[- gaunaa jyaada haonaa caaihe. [sa Avasqaa maoM yahaĐ saMlayana p`itiËyaaeĐ svatÁ haonao lagatI hOM¸ ijasako flasva$p Plaaj,maa ka tap AaOr baZ,ta jaata hO.

karNa¸ Plaaj,maa Avasqaa maoM hao rhI iDyauToiryama–T/a[iTyama jaOsaI naaiBakIya saMlayana kI p`itiËyaaAaoM sao ]%paidt }jaa- ka AaiQakaMSa Baaga [saI p`itiËyaa sao ]%pnna ihlaIyama ko naaiBakaoM (3. 5 MeV) jaOsaI AavaoiSat kaiNakaAaoM maoM inaiht rhta hO. yao kiNakaeĐ Plaaj,maa maoM hI Aapsa maoM TkratI rhtI hOM. [nako Tkrava sao inassaairt }jaa- Plaaj,maa ka tap baZ,ato rhnao maoM sahayak haotI hOO. łhalaaĐik Ait ]cca tap pr Plaaj,maa ko AMdr p`itraoQa ka str [tnaa kma hao jaata hO ik [sa p`kar ko Tkrava tap baZ,anao ko ilae lagaBaga Ap`BaavaI hao jaato hOM¸ saaqa hI Plaaj,maa sao ivaiBanna BaaOitk tqaa ivaVut–cauMbakIya p`iËyaaAaoM ko flasva$p }Ymaa ka h`asa lagatar haota rhta hO. flatÁ yahaĐ haonao vaalaI naaiBakIya saMlayana kI  p`itiËyaaoM kI inarMtrta banaae rKnao ko ilae Plaaj,maa kao Ait }jaa-yau> AnaavaoiSat kiNakaAaoM ko puMja Aqavaa roiDyaao ÍI@vaoMsaI vaovsa jaOsao baa*ya sa`aotaoM Wara }Ymaa p`dana krnaI pD,tI hO.´

SaoYa }jaa- [saI p`itiËyaa sao ]%pnna nyauT/a^nsa (14. 1MeV ) jaOsaI AnaavaoiSat kiNakaAaoM maoM naIiht rhtI hO. yao AnaavaoiSat kaiNakaeĐ qaaoD,I –bahut baaQaaAaoM kao par krto hue Plaaj,maa ko baahr inakla kr vahaĐ ]pisqat laIiqayama ko AavarNa sao Tkra kr ApnaI }jaa- [sao do dotI hOMO. [sako flasva$p T/a[iTyama ka ]%padna haota hO tqaa vahaĐ Avaisqat hIlaIyama jaOsao ivainamaya maaQyama ka tap baZ,ta hO. p`BaavaI maa~a maoM }Ymaa ]%padna ko ilae nyaUT/a^nsa kI gait kao kma krnaa AavaSyak hO¸ ijasako ilae laIiqayama ko prt kI maaoTa[- kma sao k,ma ek maITr haonI caaihe. [sa p`kar ]%pnna ]Ymaa ka ]pyaaoga¸ panaI kao vaaYp maoM badla kr ivaVut }jaa- ]%paidt krnao vaalao Tbaa-[na ko saMcaalana maoM ikyaa jaa sakta hO.

[tnao ]cca tap pr¸ jaihr hO¸ Plaaj,maa kao iksaI BaI pdaqa- sao banao pa~ maoM pirsaIimat kr nahIM rKa jaa sakta. eosao pa~ turMt vaaiYpt hao jaaeĐgao. [sa samasyaa sao inapTnao ko ilae p`ayaaoigak taOr pr cauMbakIya pirsaImana (magnetic confinement) ivaiQa  ka ]pyaaoga ikyaa jaa rha hO. [sa ivaiQa maoM Plaaj,maa pirsaImana pa~ kao pUNa-$poNa inavaa-itt (evacuate) kr [samaoM ek imalaIga`ama p`it GanamaITr Gana%va vaalao tapnaaiBakIya [-MQana kao k[- gaunaa AiQak vaayaumaNDlaIya dbaava tk Bara jaata hO¸ ifr [-MQana ko caaraoM trf tIva` cauMbakIya prt (magnetic blanket) ka saRjana ikyaa jaata hO. [sa cauMbakIya prt ko AMdr tapnaaiBakIya [-MQana ]cca tap pr BaI Plaaj,maa Avasqaa maoM pirsaIimat rhta hO evaM pdaqaao-M sao inaima-t pirsaImana pa~ kI dIvaala ko saMpk- maoM nahIM Aata.

Aagao—