iva&ana vaata-

vaO&ainak AnausaMQaanaÁ 
baIto vaYa- 2003 ka laoKa–jaaoKa

Da gau$ dyaala p`dIp

vaYa- 2003  , , , hr vaYa- kI trh kala ko gaala maoM samaato jaa rho samaya ka ek CaoTa saa ihssaa.saca hO¸ maanava [ithasa ko hjaaraoM–hjaar saala kI CaoTI saI kala–AvaiQa maoM hI [sakI kao[- ibasaat nahIM hO tao Balaa samaUcao ivaSva ko AnaMt kala–AvaiQa maoM [saka @yaa mah<va hao sakta hOÆ laoikna nahIM¸ hma manauYyaaoM ko ilae samaya ka ek–ek pla bahumaUlya hO. pUro ek vaYa- (Aqaa-t\ 365 idna¸ jaao lagaBaga 31536000 saokoMDaoM ko yaaoga sao banata hO) ka tao khnaa hI @yaa ! hr saala kI trh [sa saala BaI hmanaoo maanava saByata kI p`gait ko rasto maoM saflata ko bahutoro nae JaMDo gaaD,o hOM. saala dr saala haotI p`gait kao doK kr inaScaya hI hmaaro pUva-jaaoM ka saInaa gava- sao caaOD,a haota jaata haogaa.

jara saaoicae¸ maanava [ithasa ko p`arMiBak idnaaoM maoM pla–pla rMga badlatI ËUr evaM inad-yaI p`kRit sao saMGaYa- krta ek kmajaaor¸ inah%qaa Asahaya maanava.AaiKr ]sako pasa qaa hI @yaaÆ saIMga¸ naukIlao daÐt¸ baD,o–baDo, naaKUnaaoM vaalao pMjao¸ ivaYa–ga`Miqa sao yau> yaa ifr AitbalaSaalaI ivaSaalakaya SarIr ko maailak jaanavaraoM kI tulanaa maoM ek inahayat hI kmajaaor SarIr vaalaa¸ zMD maoM izzurta¸gamaI- maoM Jaulasata¸ BaUK imaTanao ko ilae jaMgala–jaMgala BaTkta maanava.Apnao haqa –pOraoM sao kama calata na doK kr pasa pD,o p%qar kao ]za kr iSakar kI trf foMknao vaalao phlao maanava nao saMBavatÁ hmaarI jauJaa$ p`kRit tqaa [sa dRZ, [cCa–Sai> ka ]d\GaaoYa ja$r kr idyaa haogaa ik hma har maananao vaalaaoM maoM sao nahIM hO,. hma [saI kmajaaor tqaa inah%qao SarIr ko bala pr hI QaIro–QaIro saarI ivaprIt pirisqaityaaoM pr ivajaya paeÐgao AaOr ek idna saarI p`akRitk sauivaQaaAaoM ka ]pyaaoga ApnaI majaI- sao kroMgao. yahI nahIM¸ hma p`kRit kI majaI- pr nahIM calaoMgao bailk p`kRit kao hmaarI majaI- pr calanaa haogaa¸ AaOr [sako ilae hmanao [stomaala ikyaa ApnaI ivaSlaoYak bauiw ka¸ saamaUihk kaya- Baavanaa ka tqaa &ana kao sadOva baZ,ato rhnao kI p`vaRit ka.

[nhIM saba ka pirNaama hO ik Aaja hmaaro AMtirxa yaana maMgala ga`h pr ]trnao kI tOyaarI maoM hOMÂ hma hjaaraoM maIla dUr baOzo Apnao ip`ya sao maaobaa[la tqaa [MTrnaoT ko Wara sadOva saMpk- maoM rh pa rho hOMÂ AiQaktr baImaairyaaoM ka ]pcaar kr pa rho hMOÂ jaoonaoiTk [MjaIinayairMga ko bala pr jaIva–jaMtuAaoM tqaa syavaM ko gauNaaoM maoM manacaaha pirvat-na kr saknao kI xamata ko ivakasa ko baohd krIba hOM. p`kRit pr saMpUNa- ivajaya ko [sa mahaAaiBayaana maoM hma kafI Aagao inakla Aae hOM.

janavarI ka yah mahInaa nae saala¸ 2004 ko p`arMBa ka Vaotk hO.AaMQaI– tUfana kI rFtar sao BaagatI [sa duinayaaM maoM Aa[e tinak ivaEaama laoM AaOr iva&ana–vaata- ko [sa AMk maoM hma vaYa- 2003 maoM hu[- kuC mah<vaPaUNa- vaO&ainak p`gaityaaoM  ka jaayajaa laoM. @yaaoM ik [sa CaoTo sao AalaoK maoM hjaaraoM vaYaao-M ka laoKa–jaaoKa p`stut kr panaa tao AsaMBava hO hIÂ Aaja–kla vaO&ainak AnausaMQaanaaoM kI rFtar [tnaI toja hO ik ipClao vaYa- ko saBaI AnausaMQaanaaoM kao samaoT panaa BaI saMBava nahIM hO. yahaÐ hma kovala eosao dsa mah%vapUNa- vaO&ainak AnausaMQaanaaoM kI cacaa- kroMgao jaao inakT BaivaYya maoM hmaaro samaaja tqaa vaO&ainak p`gait ko pqa kao gaMBaIr $p sao p`Baaivat krnao vaalao hMO. [naka maUlyaaMkna ek AlaaBakarI saMsqaa ‘Amaoirkna AsaaoiSayaoSana fa^r d eDvaaMsamaoMT Aa^f saa[Msa’ (AAAS) Wara ikyaa gayaa hO. p`stut jaanakarI [saI maUlyaaMkna pr AaQaairt hO.

  • ba`*maaND maoM AMQaorI Aqavaa kalaI }jaa- tqaa pdaqaao-M ka saama`ajyaÁ kuC vaYa- pUva- saMpUNa- ba`*maaMD ko saMdBa- maoM kuC Kgaaola–vaO&ainakaoM evaM ka^smaaolaa^ijasT\sa nao baD,a hI AnaUza sauJaava p`stut ikyaa qaa. ]nako Anausaar [sa ba`*maaMD ka ivastar lagaatar hao rha hO AaOr [sakI gait ËmaSaÁ toja sao tojatr haotI jaa rhI hO. [sako pUva- kI vaO&ainak saaoca yah qaI ik ba`*maaND ko ivastar kI gait SaOnaoÁ – SaOnaoÁ kma hao rhI hO. prMtu ]prao> sauJaava zIk [sako ivaprIt hO. kOsao hao rha hO yah ivastarÆ tao [na vaO&ainakaoM ka javaaba hO–AMQaorI Aqavaa kalaI }jaa- ( Dark Energy)! jaI haи [nako matanausaar [sa ba`*maaND ko AiQakaMSa ihssao pr kalaI }jaa- ka saayaa hO. vaastva maoM yah rhsyamayaI AMQaorI }jaa- iknhIM BaI dao AakaSaIya ipMDaoM ko baIca kaya-rt gau$%vaakYa-Na–Sai> ko ivaprIt kaya- krtI hO AaOr ]nhoM ek dUsaro sao dUr krnao kI p`iËyaa maoM sahayak hO.  

    ]prao> sauJaava ip`nsaTna yauinavaisa-TI tqaa kOilafaoina-yaa isqat iDpaT-maoMT Aa^f [najaI- ko laa^roMsa bak-lao laObaaoroTrI maoM saa^la pla-maTr ko t%vaaQaana maoM calanao vaalao ‘[MTrnaoSanala sauprnaaovaa ka^smaaolaa^jaI p`aojao@T’ tqaa Aa^sT/oilayaa isqat ‘maa]MT sTa^ma-laao AaOr saa[iDMga isp`Mga Aa^bjavao-TrIja’ isqat ‘ha[- –ja,oD sauprnaaovaa saca- TIma’ ko lagaBaga 10 vaYaao-M ko gahna AQyayana ka pirNaama hO.[na laaogaaoM nao k[- dja-na sauprnaaovaa
    ( eosao taro jaao Acaanak A%yaiQak camakIlao hao jaato hOM) ka AQyayana ikyaa ijanamaoM sao kuC tao [tnao puranao tqaa dUr hOM ik ]nako Wara ]%saija-t p`kaSa–puMja ( ka^ismak maa[Ëaovaovsa ) nao pRqvaI kI trf ApnaI yaa~a tba Sau$ kI qaI jaba yah ba`*maaND Apnao Aist%va ko p`arMiBak kala maoM qaa.

    AAAS nao [sa sauJaava ka 1998 maoM hI ]sa vaYa- ko p`mauK vaO&ainak ]plaibQayaaoM maoM [sakI gaNanaa kI qaI. prMtu bahutoro KgaaolaSaais~yaaoM evaM ka^smaaolaa^ijasT\sa nao [sa saMdBa- maoM ApnaI SaMkaeÐ jata[- qaIM tqaa [sasao Asahmait vya@t kI qaI.

    2003 maoM punaÁ [saI saMsqaa nao [sa sauJaava  kao gat vaYa- ko sabasao mah%vapUNa- Kaoja ka djaa- idyaa hO. [nako [sa AaMklana ka AaQaar hO ivailknsana maa[Ëaovaova enaAa[saaoT/a^pI p`aoba
    (WMAP) saOTolaa[T tqaa slaaona iDijaTla ska[- savao- (SDSS) Toilaskaop Wara p`aPt saUcanaaAaoM ko ivaSlaoYaNa ka pirNaama. [sa saOTolaa[T tqaa Toilaskaop sao p`aPt saUcanaaAaoM nao SaMkalau vaO&ainakaoM kI SaMkaAaoM ka lagaBaga saMpUNa- samaaQaana p`stut kr idyaa hO.

    ³halaaÐik Kgaaola Saais~yaaoM ko ek AtMra-YT/Iya dla nao hala hI maoM kalaI }jaa- ko Aist%va ko baaro maoM ApnaI SaMka jata[- hO. [nakI SaMka ka AaQaar hO¸ yaUraoipyana sposa ejaoMsaI ko e@sa ema ema–nyaUTna saOTolaa[T Aa^bjarvaoTrI Wara saMMp`oiYat AaMkD,aoM ka ivaSlaoYaNa. [na laaogaaoM nao saudUr isqat Aaz AakaSagaMgaaAaoM sao ]%saija-t e@sa–roja kI maa~a tqaa ]nako }jaa-—str sao saMbaMiQat AaMkD,aoM ka ivaSlaoYaNa ikyaa. [nako Anausaar yao AaMkD,o yah dSaa-to hOM ik [sa ba`*maaND maoM ]pisqat pdaqaao-M ka Gana%va Anaumaana sao khIM bahut jyaada hO AaOr eosaa tBaI saMBava hO jaba ba`*maaNDIya pdaqaao-M kI maa~a BaI pyaa-Pt hao AaOr jaba ba`*maaNDIya pdaqaao-M kI maa~a [tnaI AiQak haogaI tao kalaI }jaa- ko Aist%va ko ilae kma hI sqaana bacaogaa.´

    WMAP
    nao ba`*maaND ko Aist%va maoM Aanao ko p`arMiBak kala (lagaBaga caalaIsa laaK baad) maoM ]%saija-t p`kaSa kI ikrNaaoM ka Aba tk ko savaa-iQak ivastRt ica~ laonao maoM saflata p`aPt kI. [na ikrNaaoM kI AiBarcanaa ko  ivastRt ivaSlaoYaNa ko baad AnausaMQaanak<aa- [sa inaYkYa- pr phuÐcao hOM ik saara ba`*maaND kovala 4 p`itSat saamaanya jaanao–maanao pdaqaao-MM¸  23 p`itSat Anajaanao rhsyamaya pdaqaaMo-M (KgaaolaSaais~yaaoM ka maananaa hO ik yao Anajaanao pdaqa- eosao kNaaoM sao imala kr banao hMO¸ijasako baaro maoM iflahala hmaaro pasa kao[- jaanakarI nahIM hO)  tqaa SaoYa– 73 p`itSat¸ kalaI }jaa-  sao imala kr banaa hO. hO na [sa ba`*maaND pr kalaI Aqavaa AMQaorI }jaa- ka saama`ajyaÆ  

    yahI nahIM¸
    WMAP nao ba`*maaND kI ]ma`¸ ivastar kI dr tqaa Gana%va ko sabaMQa maoM BaI kuC p`kaSa Dalanao ka p`yaasa ikyaa hO. Balaa iktnaI ]ma` haogaI [sa ba`*maaND kIÆ ]prao> ivaSlaoYaNa ko AaQaar pr AnausaMQaanak<aa-AaoM nao Anaumaana lagaayaa hO ik yah kma sao kma 13.7 Arba vaYa- puranaa tao hO hI. 

    SDSS ko Toilaskaop nao kafI madd kI hO. [sako Wara p`aPt AaMkDaoM ka ivaSlaoYaNa hmaoM kraoD,aoM AakaSagaMgaaAaoM ko Aakar–p`kar tqaa saMpUNa- AMtirxa maoM [nako fOlaava kI AiBarcanaa–ivaiSaYT ka &ana krata hO. yah ivaSlaoYaNa BaI hmaoM [saI inaYkYa- pr phuÐcaata hO ik [sa ba`*maaND maoM kalaI }jaa- ka hI p`Bau%va hO.

    [sa ba`*maaND kI saMrcanaa kao AcCI trh samaJanao ko Aitir> kalaI }jaa- evaM kalao pdaqaao-M sao saMbaMiQat ivastRt &ana BaivaYya maoM hmaaro saamanao saMBaavanaaAaoM ka AsaIma ipTara Kaola sakto hOM.yao kalao rhsyamaya pdaqa- BaivaYya maoM nae–nae ]pkrNaaoM¸ yaM~aoM tqaa naanaa p`kar ko ]pyaaogaI vastuAaoM ko inamaa-Na maoM sahayak hao sakto hOM.kalaI }jaa- ko ]%padna ka rhsya samaJa kr hma BaivaYya maoM AMtr–naxa~Iya yaa~aAaoM kao saugama banaa sakto hMO.yah }jaa- hmaaro AMtirxa yaanaaoM kao rasto maoM pD,nao vaalaI  ivaiBanna taraoM tqaa tara samaUhaoM ko Sai>SaalaI gau$%vaakYa-Na $pI baaQaaAaoM sao inajaat idlaanao maoM sahayak hao saktI hO.

  • maanaisak baImaairyaaoM sao dao–dao haqaÁ KMiDt maanaisakta ( iskja,aof`Iinayaa )tqaa ]nmaadI Avasaad (maOinak iDp`oSana Aqavaa baa[paolar iDsAa^D-r) jaOsaI gaMBaIr maanaisak baImaairyaaoM ko maUla karNa evaM [nako inavaarNa ko saMdBa- maoM vaO&ainakaMo Wara ike jaa rho p`yaasaaoM kao AAAS nao 2003 ko sava-EaoYz AnausaMQaanaaoM kI EaoNaI maoM dUsara sqaana idyaa hO. 

    KMiDt maanaisakta ko laxaNaaoM maoM mau#ya hOM – ivaBa`ma¸ Ba`aMit tqaa vyaamaaoh kI isqait¸ Avyavaisqat ivacaar evaM saMvaodnaaeи saamaaijakta sao Alagaava Aaid. [sa baImaarI ko laxaNa A@sar ikSaaoravasqaa ko ]<araQa- Aqavaa vayaskta ko p`arMBa maoM p`kT haoto hOM. pIiD,t vyai@t kao A@sar vah saunaa[- pD,ta hO jaao dUsaro nahI sauna pato. dUsaro SabdaoM maoM ]sako kana bajato rhto hOM. yah baImaarI ek p`kar sao AnauvaaMiSak haotI hO. vaO&ainakaoM nao hala hI eosao k[- jaInsa ka pta lagaayaa hO ijanaka saMbaMQa [sa baImaarI sao hO. CzvaoM Ëaomaaoja,aoma kI CaoTI evaM laMbaI daonaaoM baaÐhaoM¸AazvaoM evaM AT\zarhvaoM Ëaomaaoja,aomsa kI CaoTI baaÐhaoM¸ paÐcavaoM¸ gyaarhvaoM¸ baa[savaoM¸ phlao tqaa torhvaoM Ëaomaaoja,msa kI laMbaI baaÐhaoM ko saaqa–saaqa ]nnaIsavaoM Ëaomaaoja,aomsa kI laMbaI evaM CaoTI daonaaoM baaÐhaoM tqaa e@sa Ëaomaaojaao,msa kI laMbaI baaÐh pr eosao jaInsa kI saMBaavanaa dSaa-yaI ga[- hO jaao [sa baImaarI ko ek Aqavaa Anaok laxaNaaoM sao jauD,o hao sakto hMO. 

    ]nmaadI Avasaad  jaOsaI maanaisak baImaarI ko raogaI kI manaaodSaa maoM BaarI ]Wolana doKa jaata hO. qaaoD,o samaya ko ilae tao vah Ait iËyaaSaIlata
    (mania) kI isqait maMo rhta hO AaOr ifr Acaanak Avasaad (depression) kI isqait maoM phuÐca jaata hO. yao daonaaoM AvasqaaeÐ ibanaa iksaI karNa AatI –jaatI rhtI hOM. 

    jaInsa ka [sa baImaarI sao iktnaa saMbaMQa hO¸ [sa baaro maoM ABaI BaI Kaoja cala hI rhI hO. ifr BaI baarhvaoM Ëaomaaoja,aoma kI laMbaI baaÐh¸ caaOqao Ëaomaaoja,aoma kI CaoTI baaÐh¸ e@sa Ëaomaaoja,aoma kI laMbaI baaÐh¸ AT\zarhvaoM tqaa saaolahvaoM Ëaomaaoja,aomsa kI CaoTI baaÐh evaM [@kIsavaoM ka`omaaoja,aoma kI laMbaI baaÐh pr [sa baImaarI sao saMbaMiQat jaInsa kI saMBaavanaa dSaa-yaI ga[- hO. 

    vaO&ainak Aba yah samaJanao ka p`yaasa kr rho hOM ik yao jaInsa iksa p`kar maistYk kI saUcanaa–saMp`oYaNa–p`iËyaa kao p`Baaivat krto hOM tqaa ikna pirisqaityaaoM maoM vyai> maanaisak baImaairyaaoM ko capoT maoM Aa jaata hO.AaSaa hO inakT BaivaYya maoM [nasao laD,nao ko ilae AnausaMQaanak<aa- P`aBaavakarI AaOYaiQayaaoM ka ivakasa  kr laoMgao.

      pRYz : 1 . 2                                                                                       Aagao—